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Kodi Carbon Fiber Imapangidwa Bwanji?

Kodi Carbon Fiber Imapangidwa Bwanji?

Kupanga, kugwiritsa ntchito, ndi tsogolo la zinthu zolimba, zopepuka izi

Zomwe zimatchedwanso graphite fiber kapena carbon graphite, carbon fiber imakhala ndi zingwe zoonda kwambiri za carbon element. Ulusi umenewu uli ndi mphamvu zolimba kwambiri ndipo ndi wamphamvu kwambiri chifukwa cha kukula kwake. Ndipotu, mtundu umodzi wa carbon fiber—carbon nanotube—imatengedwa kuti ndiyo yamphamvu kwambiri imene ilipo. Mapulogalamu a carbon fiber amaphatikizapo zomangamanga, uinjiniya, ndege, magalimoto ochita bwino kwambiri, zida zamasewera, ndi zida zoimbira. Pankhani ya mphamvu, mpweya wa carbon umagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga zitsulo zamphepo, kusungirako gasi wachilengedwe, ndi ma cell amafuta oyendetsa. M'makampani oyendetsa ndege, ili ndi ntchito mu ndege zankhondo ndi zamalonda, komanso magalimoto osayendetsedwa ndi ndege. Pofufuza mafuta, amagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga mapulaneti obowola m'madzi akuya ndi mapaipi.

Zowona Zachangu: Ziwerengero za Carbon Fiber

  • Chingwe chilichonse cha kaboni fiber ndi ma microns asanu mpaka 10 m'mimba mwake. Kuti ndikupatseni chidziwitso chakuchepa kwake, micron imodzi (um) ndi mainchesi 0.000039. Ulusi umodzi wa kangaude nthawi zambiri umakhala pakati pa ma microns atatu kapena asanu ndi atatu.
  • Ulusi wa carbon ndi wolimba kuwirikiza kawiri kuposa chitsulo komanso kuwirikiza kasanu kuposa chitsulo, (pa unit of weight). Amakhalanso osagwirizana ndi mankhwala ndipo amalekerera kutentha kwambiri komanso kutsika kwa kutentha.

Zida zogwiritsira ntchito
Mpweya wa kaboni umapangidwa kuchokera ku ma polima a organic, omwe amakhala ndi zingwe zazitali za mamolekyu olumikizidwa pamodzi ndi maatomu a carbon. Mitundu yambiri ya carbon (pafupifupi 90%) imapangidwa kuchokera ku njira ya polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Zochepa (pafupifupi 10%) zimapangidwa kuchokera ku rayon kapena njira ya petroleum.

Mpweya, zakumwa, ndi zinthu zina zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga zimapanga zotsatira, mikhalidwe, ndi kuchuluka kwa carbon fiber. Opanga kaboni fiber amagwiritsa ntchito ma formula ake ndi kuphatikiza kwazinthu zopangira zomwe amapanga ndipo nthawi zambiri, amawatenga ngati zinsinsi zamalonda.

Mpweya wa kaboni wapamwamba kwambiri wokhala ndi modulus wothandiza kwambiri (wokhazikika kapena wokhazikika womwe umagwiritsidwa ntchito kufotokoza kuchuluka kwa manambala komwe chinthu chimakhala ndi chinthu china, monga elasticity) chimagwiritsidwa ntchito pofufuza zinthu ngati zakuthambo.

Njira Yopangira
Kupanga mpweya wa kaboni kumaphatikizapo njira zamakina komanso zamakina. Zida zopangira, zomwe zimadziwika kuti precursors, zimakokedwa m'zingwe zazitali kenako zimatenthedwa mpaka kutentha kwambiri pamalo a anaerobic (opanda okosijeni). M'malo moyaka, kutentha kwambiri kumapangitsa kuti maatomu a fiber azigwedezeka mwamphamvu kotero kuti pafupifupi maatomu onse omwe si a carbon amatulutsidwa.

Ntchito ya carbonization ikatha, CHIKWANGWANI chotsalacho chimapangidwa ndi maunyolo aatomu aatomu aatali aatali, omangika mwamphamvu ndi maatomu ochepa kapena opanda kaboni otsala. Kenako ulusi umenewu amaupanga kukhala nsalu kapena kuuphatikiza ndi zinthu zina zomwe pambuyo pake amazipanga kuti zioneke ndi kukula kwake.

Magawo asanu otsatirawa ndiwofanana ndi njira ya PAN yopangira mpweya wa kaboni:

  • Kupota. PAN amasakaniza ndi zinthu zina n’kuzipota n’kukhala ulusi, womwe kenako amachapidwa ndi kuutambasulira.
  • Kukhazikika. Ulusiwo umasinthidwa ma chemical kuti akhazikitse mgwirizano.
  • Carbonizing. Ulusi wokhazikika umatenthedwa mpaka kutentha kwambiri kupanga makristasi omangika a kaboni.
  • Kuchiza Pamwamba. Pamwamba pa ulusiwo ndi oxidized kuti apititse patsogolo kugwirizana.
  • Kukula. Ulusi umakutidwa ndi kuwamanga pa ma bobbins, omwe amaikidwa pamakina opota omwe amakhota ulusiwo kukhala ulusi wosiyanasiyana. M'malo molukidwa kukhala nsalu, ulusi ukhozanso kupangidwa n'kupanga zinthu zosiyanasiyana, pogwiritsa ntchito kutentha, kupanikizika, kapena vacuum kuti amangirire ulusi ndi polima wapulasitiki.

Mpweya wa carbon nanotubes amapangidwa kudzera munjira yosiyana ndi ma fiber wamba. Akuti ndi amphamvu kuwirikiza ka 20 kuposa ma precursor awo, ma nanotubes amapangidwa m'ng'anjo zomwe amagwiritsa ntchito ma lasers kuti asungunuke tinthu ta kaboni.

Zovuta Zopanga
Kupanga mpweya wa carbon fiber kumakhala ndi zovuta zingapo, kuphatikizapo:

  • Kufunika kwa kuchira kopanda mtengo komanso kukonza
  • Mtengo wosakhazikika wopangira zinthu zina: Mwachitsanzo, ngakhale ukadaulo watsopano ukupangidwa, chifukwa cha ndalama zoletsedwa, kugwiritsa ntchito mpweya wa carbon mumsika wamagalimoto pakadali pano kumangogwira ntchito zapamwamba komanso zamagalimoto apamwamba.
  • Njira yochizira pamwamba iyenera kuyendetsedwa mosamala kuti asapange maenje omwe amabweretsa ulusi wolakwika.
  • Kuyang'anira pafupi kumafunika kuti mutsimikizire kusasinthika
  • Zaumoyo ndi chitetezo kuphatikiza kukwiya kwapakhungu ndi kupuma
  • Arcing ndi zazifupi mu zida zamagetsi chifukwa champhamvu yamagetsi-conductivity ya carbon fibers

Tsogolo la Carbon Fiber
Pamene teknoloji ya carbon fiber ikupitirizabe kusinthika, mwayi wa carbon fiber udzangosiyana ndikuwonjezeka. Ku Massachusetts Institute of Technology, maphunziro angapo okhudzana ndi mpweya wa carbon akuwonetsa kale lonjezo lalikulu pakupanga ukadaulo watsopano wopangira ndi mapangidwe kuti akwaniritse zofuna zamakampani omwe akubwera.

MIT Wothandizira Pulofesa wa Mechanical Engineering John Hart, mpainiya wa nanotube, wakhala akugwira ntchito ndi ophunzira ake kuti asinthe teknoloji yopangira zinthu, kuphatikizapo kuyang'ana zipangizo zatsopano zomwe zingagwiritsidwe ntchito limodzi ndi osindikiza a 3D amalonda. "Ndinawafunsa kuti aganizire mozama za njanji; ngati atha kukhala ndi chosindikizira cha 3-D chomwe sichinapangidwepo kapena zinthu zothandiza zomwe sizingasindikizidwe pogwiritsa ntchito makina osindikizira amakono,” Hart anafotokoza.

Zotsatira zake zinali makina osindikizira omwe amasindikiza magalasi osungunuka, ayisikilimu wofewa komanso makina a carbon fiber. Malinga ndi Hart, magulu a ophunzira adapanganso makina omwe amatha kugwiritsa ntchito "ma polima am'dera lalikulu" ndikuchita "in situ Optical scanning" posindikiza.

Kuphatikiza apo, Hart adagwira ntchito ndi MIT Associate Pulofesa wa Chemistry Mircea Dinca pamgwirizano wazaka zitatu womwe wangomaliza ndi Automobili Lamborghini kuti afufuze kuthekera kwa mpweya watsopano wa carbon fiber ndi zida zophatikizika zomwe tsiku lina sizingango "kupangitsa kuti galimoto yonse ikhalepo. amagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati makina a batri,” koma amatsogolera ku “matupi opepuka, amphamvu, zosinthira zowongolera bwino, utoto wocheperako, ndi kuwongolera kutentha kwa sitima yamagetsi [ponseponse].”

Ndikupita patsogolo kodabwitsa kotereku, n'zosadabwitsa kuti msika wa carbon fiber ukuyembekezeka kukula kuchokera pa $ 4.7 biliyoni mu 2019 mpaka $ 13.3 biliyoni pofika 2029, pamlingo wokulirapo pachaka (CAGR) wa 11.0% (kapena wokwera pang'ono) kuposa nthawi yomweyo.

Magwero

  • McConnell, Vicki. "Kupanga Carbon Fiber." CompositeWorld. Disembala 19, 2008
  • Sherman, Don. "Kupitilira Carbon Fiber: Chotsatira Chotsatira Ndi Champhamvu Nthawi 20." Galimoto ndi Woyendetsa. Marichi 18, 2015
  • Randall, Danielle. "Ofufuza a MIT amagwirizana ndi Lamborghini kupanga galimoto yamagetsi yamtsogolo." MITMECHE/Mu Nkhani: Dipatimenti ya Chemistry. Novembala 16, 2017
  • "Msika wa Carbon Fiber ndi Raw Material (PAN, Pitch, Rayon), Mtundu wa Fiber (Namwali, Wobwezeretsedwanso), Mtundu Wazinthu, Modulus, Ntchito (Zophatikiza, Zosaphatikiza), Makampani Ogwiritsa Ntchito Mapeto (A & D, Magalimoto, Mphamvu Zamphepo ), ndi Chigawo—Zolosera Zapadziko Lonse mpaka 2029.” MarketsandMarkets™. Seputembara 2019

Nthawi yotumiza: Jul-28-2021